Emergency contraception options
Emergency contraception is also called post-coital contraception. It is a way of preventing pregnancy after unprotected sex, or when other contraception has failed.
It is not intended for use as a regular method of preventing pregnancy.
There are two main types of emergency contraception:
- the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP)
- the copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD)
You have up to 72 hours after unprotected sex to take the ECP.
You have up to five days after ovulation to have an IUD fitted.
The ECP is most effective at preventing pregnancy (95% effective) if taken within 24 hours of unprotected sex. Within 25 to 48 hours, the effectiveness falls to 85%, and within 49 to 72 hours it is only 58% effective.
A copper IUD inserted within five days of unprotected sexual intercourse has almost 100% effectiveness.
You can use emergency contraception
- if you have had unprotected sex on any day of your monthly cycle
- if a barrier method, such as a condom, diaphragm or cervical cap, was used incorrectly or became dislodged
- if your IUD came out, either partially or completely
If you missed taking your regular contraceptive pill
- if you missed a dose of your regular oral contraceptive pill, or took it late, the action you should take depends on the type of pill you use. It also depends on how late you are in taking the pills, or how many you missed.
- check the product information for your pill or ask your pharmacist or other health professional for advice. You may need to use additional protection, such as a condom, for a while. You may also need to consider using emergency contraception if you have had unprotected sex in the previous seven days.
Intrauterine contraceptive device
This device is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus (womb). It works by preventing fertilised eggs from attaching to the womb lining. It can be fitted by your doctor or at a Family Planning Clinic.
Emergency contraceptive pill
The ECP can prevent pregnancy by delaying ovulation, stopping sperm from fertilising an egg already released, or preventing a fertilised egg from becoming attached to the womb lining.
It does not have any effect on a fertilised egg that has already become attached to the womb lining, and cannot interrupt an established pregnancy.
A levonorgestrel tablet (Levonelle-1, Levonorgestrel-1, NorLevo-1, Postella-1, Postinor-1 or Postrelle-1) is taken within 72 hours, preferably within 12 hours, of unprotected sexual intercourse. Depending on the brand of tablet, you may need to take a single dose of levonorgestrel as soon as possible after unprotected sex; or one dose as soon as possible and a second dose exactly 12 hours later – check with your pharmacist about dosing.
[DOCTOR’S PRESCRIPTION ONLY]
A newer ECP is available containing ulipristal acetate (EllaOne). It must be taken within 120 hours (preferably within 24 hours) of unprotected intercourse, and must be prescibed by a doctor.
How can you get the ECP?
The levonorgestrel ECP can be sold by pharmacists; you do not need a prescription. Pharmacists will take you to a private area where you can talk about the ECP.
The ECP can also be obtained from family doctors and family planning or sexual health clinics.
EllaOne must be obtained with a doctor’s prescription.
Who can get the ECP?
The ECP may be sold to any woman over the age of 16.
Supply under the age of 16 is at the discretion of the pharmacist and should comply with relevant jurisdictional legislation.
The pharmacist is required to record the supply of the ECP. Every pharmacy is different in how your personal information is documented.
The pharmacist will refer you to your doctor or a family planning clinic in some situations, such as if you:
- are pregnant or think you might be
- have a period that is more than five days late, is unusually light or heavy, or is painful
- are at risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection
- need to consider long-term contraception
- are taking medication that can reduce effectiveness of the ECP
- are an adolescent
- the ECP sometimes causes nausea and vomiting
- if you vomit within three hours of taking the ECP, you should see your pharmacist, doctor or Family Planning Clinic for advice and further tablets
- the pharmacist can also supply tablets to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with taking the ECP, but not everyone will need these
- other possible side effects include tender breasts, headaches, lower abdominal pain, dizziness and fatigue
- your next period may be later or earlier than usual, or there may be spotting or irregular bleeding before your period occurs
- the ECP does not protect against pregnancy if you have more unprotected sex after taking the ECP
- the ECP does not protect against sexually transmitted infections
- the ECP can be used at any time during your menstrual cycle, and can be used more than once in the same cycle; however, it is not an appropriate method for regular contraception
- if you are breastfeeding it is recommended that you bottle feed your infant for the following 3 to 7 days, depending on the brand of ECP used and your pharmacist’s advice. It is important to still express your milk
- the ECP is not 100% effective and if your next period is more than five days late you should carry out a pregnancy test
Last Reviewed: 01/06/2016
Emergency contraception - morning-after pill
Types of emergency contraception such as the morning-after pill can prevent an unwanted pregnancy following unprotected intercourse.
Contraception - barrier methods
Barrier methods of contraception stop a man's sperm from reaching a woman's egg, and include condoms, diaphragms and caps. Find out what products are available for barrier contraception.
Contraception: long-term options for women
Long-lasting forms of contraception for women include implants, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and injections, all of which are reversible. Compare the different options.
Contraception: intrauterine device (IUD)
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus (womb) to stop you getting pregnant. IUDs are reliable, safe and suitable for women of all ages.
Condoms can be used to prevent both pregnancy and the transmission of STIs, but should be used with appropriate lubricants to make them less likely to break. Only water-based lubricants should be used with latex condoms.