What is candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as thrush, monilia or a yeast infection, is a common fungal infection that typically affects the mouth, nipples or vagina. It is caused by a microorganism called Candida albicans. It is usually present in the body in small numbers. When the normal balance of microorganisms in your body is upset, Candida can overgrow, leading to candidiasis.

Candidiasis is not usually very serious, but can be irritating. It can be treated with antifungal medications or creams that are applied to the affected area. 

Signs and symptoms

Candidiasis is a fungal infection that can affect different areas. The most commonly-affected areas are the mouth, breast and nipples and vagina.

Oral candidiasis

If you have oral candidiasis you may experience:

  • White sores or patches in the mouth or tongue;
  • Redness or soreness in the affected areas, and;
  • Difficulty swallowing.

Open mouth showing white patches on the tongue and back of the throat.

Oral candidiasis causes white patches in the mouth or on the tongue.

Breast and nipple candidiasis

If you have breast or nipple candidiasis you may experience:

  • Itching or a burning sensation on the nipples or breast;
  • Breast or nipple pain;
  • Red or bright pink nipples, and;
  • White rash on the nipples.

Vaginal candidiasis

Women with vaginal candidiasis may experience:

  • Itching and irritation around the vagina;
  • Swelling around the vagina;
  • Thick white discharge from the vagina;
  • Pain when passing urine, and;
  • Pain during sex.

Men can also get candidiasis, but it is less common in men than in women. Men with candidiasis may experience a red and itchy rash on their penis.

Causes and risk factors

Candidiasis is a common fungal infection caused by a microorganism called Candida albicans. It is a yeast that usually lives in small numbers in the intestines, vagina or mouth. It does not usually cause any problems, but certain factors can upset the balance of Candida in your body, causing it to overgrow and lead to candidiasis.

Some of the things that may increase your chance of getting candidiasis include:

  • Having diabetes;
  • Treatment with certain medications, such as antibiotics or cortisone;
  • Being pregnant;
  • Having sex;
  • Taking an oral contraceptive pill;
  • Wearing tight-fitting pants or nylon underwear, and;
  • Humid weather.

Methods for diagnosis

To work out if you have candidiasis, your doctor may examine the affected area and take a swab. This can be sent to a laboratory to be examined under a microscope to look for Candida. The swab sample may also be applied to an agar plate that selectively grows organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts, to look for the presence of Candida.

Types of treatment

Oral candidiasis

If you have oral candidiasis, your doctor may prescribe some antifungal medications, such as a nystatin mouthwash or miconazole gel, which is applied directly to the affected area. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe an oral medication such as fluconazole.

Breast and nipple candidiasis

Breast and nipple candidiasis may be treated with medicated antifungal gels or creams that can be applied to the affected site.

Vaginal candidiasis

If you have vaginal candidiasis, your doctor may prescribe an antifungal medication, such as clotrimazole, which can either be applied to the affected area as a tablet that is placed inside the vagina (vaginal tablet) or a cream that is injected into the vagina with an applicator. The cream may also be applied externally to the genital area to help relieve symptoms. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe an oral antifungal medication such as fluconazole.

As well as medication, there are some simple things that you can do at home that may help relieve the symptoms of vaginal candidiasis, including:

  • Wearing loose-fitting cotton pants and underwear;
  • Avoiding having sex, and;
  • Gently bathing the affected area and avoiding soaps and irritants.


Candidiasis is not usually very serious. Some mild cases may clear up on their own, without any medical treatment. A doctor can prescribe antifungal medications to help clear the infection. Some people may experience repeated episodes of candidiasis.

In some cases, candidiasis can come back after it has been treated. If you experience repeated episodes of candidiasis, it is best to identify and manage any factors that may be contributing to the infection, such as medications or diabetes.


Oral candidiasis

You may reduce your chance of getting oral candidiasis if you:

  • Follow a healthy diet;
  • Rinse your mouth after eating;
  • Practise good oral hygiene, which means brushing your teeth twice a day, flossing regularly, and;
  • Having regular dental check-ups.

Breast and nipple candidiasis

The chance of developing breast and nipple candidiasis may be reduced by keeping the area around your nipples dry. This is because candidiasis grows best in warm and moist places.

Vaginal candidiasis

You may be able to reduce your chance of getting vaginal candidiasis by:

  • Wearing loose-fitting cotton underwear and pants;
  • Avoiding using soaps around the genital area (they can cause irritation);
  • Drying the genital area thoroughly after washing, and;
  • Washing your hands after going to the toilet. 

Last Reviewed: 03/10/2018

Reproduced with permission from Health&.